Tissue Engineering: 585 (Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology)
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Bennett, L. Slatest, M. McGuigan and H. Blackband and R. Constantinidis, N. Long Jr, A. Gustavssond, V. Peltonen, S. Zhang, S. Oh, B. Lee and E. Gauffin-Holmberg, K. Agering, J. Oca-Cossio, J. Bui, J. Flint, C.
Hamaty, N. Simpson and S. Benveniste, Y. Ma, J. Dhawan, A. Gifford, S. Smith, I. Feinstein, C. Petrik, J. Tabata, X. Shan, C. Krieger and C. Schweitzer, K. Schepkin, V. Initial in vivo rodent sodium and proton MR imaging at Sadleir, R.
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Theoretical considerations. Rosenberg, J. Fujioka, S. Magnetic resonance imaging with Crowe, J. A magnetic resonance-compatible perfusion bioreactor system for three-dimensional human mesenchymal stem cell construct development. Masad, I. Contrast Media and Molecular Imaging. Book Chapters Constantinidis, I. Fisher Ed. New York: Springer. This group can include a mixture of fibers from different natural materials and a synthetic or naturally derived hydrogel infused into a synthetic mesh.
For instance, coatings of collagen and fibronectin are used for cartilage applications in order to improve cell adhesion, based on the cell-integrin receptors. This combination is an interesting approach to replicate the complex structure to provide the functional in vivo properties [ 88 ]. On the other hand, a more simplified culture system for chondrogenesis is pellet culture or micromass culture that consists in pellets compromising between This scaffoldless approach avoids the complexities of creating tailored matrices, since cells create and remodel their extracellular matrix.
As cartilage is a tissue that acts as one entity to distribute applied load and therefore accomplish its mechanical function, future directions for cartilage TE are related to the integration of the engineered construct with the native host tissue. If implanted or injected immediately, the scaffold should maintain its shape and possess robust mechanical characteristics similar to native cartilage to match the loading environment.
However, in vitro culturing systems do not require scaffolds with these strict properties, since during the culture period new tissue forms and acquires slowly the chondrogenic commitment. Heart is the muscular organ responsible of pumping blood throughout arteries and veins to supply nutrients and oxygen all along the body. The muscular tissue is divided in three layers: epicardium, myocardium and endocardium. Interestingly, myocardium is composed by cardiomyocytes that have the unique ability to selfcontract without central nervous system intervention.
Their inherent contractile activity is critical for blood pumping and, hence, loss or dysfunction of cardiomyocytes results in Heart Failure HF , the major cause of death and disabilities in the world.
Nowadays, the current treatments for HF are focused on drug therapies. Unfortunately, at the end stage, heart transplantation is the only available solution [ 89 ]. Since transplants are limited due to lack of donors and the immuneresponse of the host recipient, cell-therapies are emerging as promising strategies to induce heart regeneration [ 22 ].
Since the primary goal is to increase the number of contractile cells in the necrotic zone, cardiac myocytes and skeletal myoblasts were the first evident cell source due to their natural electro-physiological, structural and contractile properties. However, these cells are difficult to obtain and expand. Nowadays, extensive research focuses on the use of adult stem cells, since they are not ethical controversial and can be easily isolated from the own patient. Interesting detailed reviews have been published the last year regarding to advantages, drawbacks and different advances developed in this issue: [ 19 , , , - ].
Different studies have faced the problem of HF combining biomaterials, biomolecules and cells. A lot of natural biomaterials are being tested due to their intrinsic characteristics.
Chitosan has been widely used as soft and injectable material and it has been proved that its application in ischemic myocardium could improve myocardial infarction microenvironment [ 96 ]. Diverse proteins like gelatins, collagens [ , ], laminin, silk [ ], vitronectin [ ], fibrin [ ] between others, with or without modifications has also been examined for their effect on cell behaviour both in 2D and 3D microenvironment in vitro.
On the other side, diverse synthetic biomaterials are under development.
Charlie Nuttelman | Chemical and Biological Engineering | University of Colorado Boulder
In addition, poly D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid PLGA porous beads have been reported to improve cell retention, maintaining them in the infracted area after implantation [ 95 ]. Besides elasticity and cell retention, biomaterials for CTE need to accomplish other properties. For instance, the poor conductivity of the materials, which limits the patch from contracting strongly as a unit, has to be faced. This issue has been approached from different points of view like the incorporation of gold nanowires within alginate scaffolds [ ] or the combination of PLGA with carbon nanofibers in different blend ratios [ ].
Moreover, materials for CTE need to be especially resistant to the formation of a fibrous capsule, which may result in electrical isolation of the transplanted tissue. Because of its low protein adsorption properties, PEG has shown to be an excellent candidate [ ].
Extensive research is still needed in order to design a material that integrates the most relevant properties to fulfill heart demands. Moreover, some efforts have been directed to GFs release into the infarcted area [ ]. Parallel, hydrogels have been investigated as alternative vehicles for release or immobilization of GFs [ 94 , , ]. In general, the results showed that substrate immobilization for its slow administration is a powerful tool for the development of useful strategies for regenerative medicine in CTE.